Obesity: (Topic presentation By Dr Sidra Zahoor - Continuing Medical Education - CME )
Measure height and weight and calculate BMI at annual visits or more frequently.
Use the current cutpoints for overweight (BMI >25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) to identify adults who may be at elevated risk of CVD and the current cutpoints for obesity (BMI ≥30) to identify adults who may be at elevated risk of mortality from all causes
Advise overweight and obese adults that the greater the BMI, the greater the risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality.
Measure waist circumference at annual visits or more frequently in overweight and obese adults.
Advise adults that the greater the waist circumference, the greater the risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality.
Need to lose weight
YES – BMI >30 or BMI 25<30 with additional risk factor(s): Weight loss treatment is indicated for 1) obese individuals and 2) overweight individuals with 1 or more indicators of increased CVD risk (e.g., diabetes, prediabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated waist circumference) or other obesity related comorbidities
NO – BMI <25 or BMI 25<30 without additional risk.
Normal weight patients (BMI 18.5<25) should be advised to avoid weight gain.
Patients who are overweight (BMI 25<30), and who do not have indicators of increased CVD risk (e.g., diabetes, prediabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated waist circumference) or other obesity-related comorbidities should be advised to avoid additional weight gain
Step 2:Matching Treatment Benefits With Risk Profiles
Counsel overweight and obese adults with CV risk factors (high BP, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia), that lifestyle changes that produce even modest, sustained weight loss of 3%-5% produce clinically meaningful health benefits, and greater weight losses produces greater benefits.
Sustained weight loss of 3%-5% is likely to result in clinically meaningful reductions in triglycerides, blood glucose, HbA1C, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes;
Greater amounts of weight loss will reduce BP, improve LDL–C and HDL–C, and reduce the need for medications to control BP, blood glucose and lipids as well as further reduce triglycerides and blood glucose.
At a 3 kg weight loss, a weighted mean reduction in triglycerides of at least 15 mg/dL is observed.
At 5 kg to 8 kg weight loss, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL–C) reductions of approximately 5 mg/dL and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL–C) 2 to 3 mg/dL are achieved.
With <3 kg weight loss, more modest and more variable improvements in triglycerides, HDL– C and LDL–C are observed
At a 5% weight loss, a weighted mean reduction in systolic and diastolic BP of approximately 3 and 2 mm Hg respectively, is observed.
• At <5% weight loss, there are more modest and more variable reductions in BP.
Step 3: Determining Recommended goals for weight loss
A realistic and meaningful weight loss goal is an important first step. Although sustained weight loss of as little as 3% to 5% of body weight may lead to clinically meaningful reductions in some CVD risk factors, larger weight losses produce greater benefits. The Panel recommends as an initial goal the loss of 5% to 10% of baseline weight within 6 months.
Step 4: Determining suitable treatment options
If the weight and lifestyle history indicates that the patient has NEVER participated in a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program, it is recommended that he or she be encouraged to undertake such a program prior to adding adjunctive therapies, as a substantial proportion of patients will lose sufficient weight with comprehensive lifestyle treatment alone to improve health.
If the patient has been unable to lose weight or sustain weight loss with comprehensive lifestyle intervention and they have a BMI ≥30 or ≥27 with comorbidity, adjunctive therapies may be considered.
Step 5:Diets for Weight Loss
Prescribe a diet to achieve reduced calorie intake for obese or overweight individuals who would benefit from weight loss, as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention. Any 1 of the following methods can be used to reduce food and calorie intake:
Prescribe 1,200–1,500 kcal/day for women and 1,500–1,800 kcal/day for men
Prescribe a 500 kcal/day or 750 kcal/day energy deficit
Prescribe one of the evidence-based diets that restricts certain food types (such as high-carbohydrate foods, low-fiber foods, or high-fat foods) in order to create an energy deficit by reduced food intake.
A diet from the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Guidelines, which focuses on targeting food groups, rather than formal prescribed energy restriction while still achieving an energy deficit.
Higher protein (25% of total calories from protein, 30% of total calories from fat, 45% of total calories from carbohydrate) with provision of foods that realized energy deficit.
Higher protein Zone™-type diet (5 meals/day, each with 40% of total calories from carbohydrate, 30% of total calories from protein, 30% of total calories from fat) without formal prescribed energy restriction but realized energy deficit.
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian-style diet with prescribed energy restriction.
Low-calorie diet with prescribed energy restriction.
Low-carbohydrate (initially <20 g/day carbohydrate) diet without formal prescribed energy restriction but realized energy deficit.
Low-fat (10% to 25% of total calories from fat) vegan style diet without formal prescribed energy restriction but realized energy deficit.
Low-fat (20% of total calories from fat) diet without formal prescribed energy restriction but realized energy deficit.
Low-glycemic load diet, either with formal prescribed energy restriction or without formal prescribed energy restriction but with realized energy deficit.
Lower fat (≤30% fat), high dairy (4 servings/day) diets with or without increased fiber and/or low-glycemic index/load foods (low-glycemic load) with prescribed energy restriction.
Macronutrient-targeted diets (15% or 25% of total calories from protein; 20% or 40% of total calories from fat; 35%, 45%, 55%, or 65% of total calories from carbohydrate) with prescribed energy restriction
Mediterranean-style diet with prescribed energy restriction.
Moderate protein (12% of total calories from protein, 58% of total calories from carbohydrate, 30% of total calories from fat) with provision of foods that realized energy deficit.
Provision of high-glycemic load or low-glycemic load meals with prescribed energy restriction.
The AHA-style Step 1 diet (with prescribed energy restriction of 1,500–1,800 kcal/day, <30% of total calories from fat, <10% of total calories from saturated fat).
Step 6: Lifestyle interventions and counselling
Advise overweight and obese individuals who would benefit from weight loss to participate for ≥6 months in a comprehensive lifestyle program that assists participants in adhering to a lower calorie diet and in increasing physical activity through the use of behavioral strategies
Prescribe on site, high-intensity (i.e., ≥14 sessions in 6 months) comprehensive weight loss interventions provided in individual or group sessions by a trained interventionist
Electronically delivered weight loss programs (including by telephone) that include personalized feedback from a trained interventionist can be prescribed for weight loss but may result in smaller weight loss than face-to-face interventions.
Some commercial-based programs that provide a comprehensive lifestyle intervention can be prescribed as an option for weight loss, provided there is peer-reviewed published evidence of their safety and efficacy
The principal components of an effective high-intensity, on-site comprehensive lifestyle intervention include:
1) prescription of a moderately-reduced calorie diet;
2) a program of increased physical activity; and
3) the use of behavioral strategies to facilitate adherence to diet and activity recommendations
Comprehensive lifestyle intervention programs typically prescribe increased aerobic physical activity (such as brisk walking) for >150 minutes/week (equal to >30 minutes/day, most days of the week). Higher levels of physical activity, approximately 200 to 300 minutes/week, are recommended to maintain lost weight or minimize weight regain long-term (>1 year).
Use a very low calorie diet (defined as <800 kcal/day) only in limited circumstances and only when provided by trained practitioners in a medical care setting where medical monitoring and high intensity lifestyle intervention can be provided. Medical supervision is required because of the rapid rate of weight loss and potential for health complications.
Advise overweight and obese individuals who have lost weight to participate long-term (≥1 year) in a comprehensive weight loss maintenance program.
For weight loss maintenance, prescribe face-to-face or telephone-delivered weight loss maintenance programs that provide regular contact (monthly or more frequent) with a trained interventionist who helps participants engage in high levels of physical activity (i.e., 200-300 minutes/week), monitor body weight regularly (i.e., weekly or more frequent), and consume a reduced-calorie diet (needed to maintain lower body weight).
Step 7: Pharmacotherapy
Based on expert opinion, the panelists recommend that for individuals with BMI ≥30 or BMI ≥27 with at least 1 obesity-associated comorbid condition who are motivated to lose weight, pharmacotherapy can be considered as an adjunct to comprehensive lifestyle intervention to help achieve targeted weight loss and health goals.
Step 8: Selecting Patients for Bariatric Surgical Treatment for Obesity
Advise adults with a BMI ≥40 or BMI ≥35 with obesity-related comorbid conditions who
are motivated to lose weight and
who have not responded to behavioral treatment with or without pharmacotherapy with sufficient weight loss to achieve targeted health outcome goals that bariatric surgery may be an appropriate option to improve health and offer referral to an experienced bariatric surgeon for consultation and evaluation
For individuals with a BMI <35, there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against undergoing bariatric surgical procedures.
Advise patients that choice of a specific bariatric surgical procedure may be affected by patient factors, including age, severity of obesity/BMI, obesity-related comorbid conditions, other operative risk factors, risk of short- and long-term complications, behavioral and psychosocial factors, and patient tolerance for risk as well as provider factors (surgeon and facility).
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)
Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with and without duodenal switch
Step 9: Assess and treat CVD risk factors and comorbidities
Risk assessment for CVD and diabetes in a person with overweight or class I to III obesity includes history, physical examination, clinical and laboratory assessments, including BP, fasting blood glucose, and fasting lipid panel (expert opinion).
A waist circumference measurement is recommended for individuals with BMI 25 <35kg/m2 to provide additional information on risk.
It is not necessary to measure waist circumference in patients with BMI >35 because the waist circumference will likely be elevated and it will add no additional risk information.
The Panel recommends, by expert opinion, using the current cutpoints (>88 cm or >35 in for women and >102 cm or >40 in for men) as indicative of increased cardiometabolic risk.